Why is selecting computer hardware and software for the organization an important management decision? What management, organization and technology issue should be considered when selecting computer hardware?
Nowadays, computer is a device that accepts information and manipulates on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data to be processed. The computers also include the means for storing data. Computers variable have two parts are software and hardware.
Computer hardware is physical foundation for the firm`s information technology infrastructure. Information technology infrastructures include software, data and networks. Computer hardware requires their storage or operation. Then, computer software is detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. However, hardware is without software to perform the tasks to associate with computers.
Subsequently, in this question ask that why is selecting computer hardware and software for the organization an important management decision? Computer hardware is accordingly representing an important organizational benefit that must be properly managed. Managers need to balance the cost of acquire hardware capital with the need to provide a responsive and reliable platform for delivering information system applications. The most important issues in managing hardware assets are understanding the new technology requirements for electronic commerce and the digital firm, it also determining the total cost of ownership of technology assets, and identifying technology trends impacting the organization`s information technology infrastructure.
While the software is represents a major organizational software asset that should be carefully managed. System software coordinates the different parts of the computer system and mediates between application software and computer hardware. As a result, the application software is used by application programmers and some end users to develop specific business application. Then, operating system is system software that to manages and controls the activities of the computer. This system acts as chief manager of the information system, allocation, assigning, and scheduling system resources and monitoring the use of the computer. Computer system resources allow to be used more efficiently such as multiprogramming, multiprocessing, virtual storage and time sharing are operating system capabilities. In PC operating systems have to developed complicated capability like support for multiple users on networks. PC operating system is leading area include Window XP, Window 98 and Window Me, Window CE, Window 2000, OS/2, Unix, Linux, Mas OS and DOS. Software also have general trend, can toward user-friendly, high level languages that both increase professional programmer productivity and make it easily for end users to work information systems. Principal programming languages used in business include C, C++ and Visual Basic and each is designed to explain specific types of problems. Software assortment should be based on criterion such as efficiency, compatibility with organization`s technology platform, vendor support, and whether the software tool is appropriate for the problems and tasks of the organization.
Another view computer hardware and software technology can enhance or organizational performance. Two of them are major organizational assets that must be carefully managed. By the electronic commerce and electronic business have put new strategic importance on technologies that can store vast quantities if operation data and make them immediately available online. So manager and information systems specialists need to pay individual attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability to ensure that the firm has enough computing power for its current and upcoming needs. Then they also need to balance the costs and benefits of owning and maintaining their own hardware and software versus renting these assets from external service providers. In the online storage service provider (SSPs) rent out storage space to subscribers over the Web, to selling the computer storage as a pay-per-use utility. Type of application service providers (ASPs) is rent out to the software applications and computer services from private network or remote computer centers to subscribers over the Internet. The companies will pay technology service provides only for the amount of computing power and services by a utility computing model. Cost is one of the point for calculating the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the organization`s technology assets can help to provide managers with the information they want to manage these assets and decide whether to rent or own these assets. Finally, the total cost of technology resources includes not only the original cost of computer hardware and software but they also same costs to upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training.
Computer hardware technology is to profound impact on business performance. Thus, it represents an important organizational asset that must be properly managed. Then, the alternative computer hardware topologies are available to processing and storing data while they are using this technology for their business. Computer system have many modern and can be categorized into six major components such as a central processing unit (CPU), primary storage, input devices, output devices, secondary storage, and communications devices (in figure 1).
CPU is the part of computer where the manipulation of symbol, letter occurs and numbers. CPU has two types of components such as an arithmetic-logic unit and a control unit. CPU is a closely tied primary memory, or primary storage, which are stores data and program instructions temporarily before or after processing. However, more than a few difference kinds of semiconductor memory chips is RAM ( random access memory) is use for short term storage of data and program instruction, then ROM (read only memory) eternally stores important program instructions. Computer processing power depends in part of speed in microprocessors, which is computer`s logic and control on a single chip. The input devices have included keyboards, computer mice, magnetic link and optical character recognition devices audio input devices and radio frequency identification devices. Maintenance of computer hardware is one of a series of cost components that mangers must consider when selecting and managing hardware technology assets. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is designates the total cost of owning technology resources including cost of hardware, maintenance, and training. Anywhere, to improve firm of management and information systems specialists, so they must pay more attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability. For this system of capacity planning, is the process of predicting when the computer hardware system become saturated. For issue of capacity planning, most of the users that using the system can accommodate at one time. Second issue is the impact of existing and the future software application. Then, is a performance measure like minimum to response time for the processing business transaction. Currently, capacity planning is ensures for the firm has enough computing power and upcoming needs. Salability is refers for the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to provide a large number of users without breaking down.
Computer hardware technology can either improve or delay organizational performance. Computer hardware selection should consider how well the technology meshes with the organization`s culture and structure with its information processing requirements.
Information technology today is not incomplete to computers but must be viewed as an array of digital devices networked together. Thus, type of computer and arrangement of processing that should be used by business in the nature organization. Computers type as well as mainframes, PCs, midrange computers, workstation, or supercomputer. While, computers also can be networked together to distribute processing among different machines. Network computer can help organization to maintain the central control over computing, linking PCs, workstations, peer-to-peer, or other computers through the internet or sharing data by private network, and disk space. Different ways of configuring hardware components in management side.
UKEssays. November 2013. Computer Hardware And Software. [online]. Available from: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-technology/computer-hardware-and-software-information-technology-essay.php?vref=1 [Accessed 30 October 2018].